Tooth injury increases expression of the cold sensitive TRP channel TRPA1 in trigeminal neurons

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, a family of structurally related proteins have been implicated in the sensation of pain and hyperalgesia caused by exogenous and endogenous agonists, as well as touch, pH, and temperature. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of tooth injury on the expression of the cold sensitive channel TRPA1, in the trigeminal ganglion, the primary source of sensory and nociceptive innervation of teeth.

The 'headache tree' via umbellulone and TRPA1 activates the trigeminovascular system

The California bay laurel or Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., is known as the ‘headache tree’ because the inhalation of its vapours can cause severe headache crises. However, the underlying mechanism of the headache precipitating properties of Umbellularia californica is unknown. The monoterpene ketone umbellulone, the major volatile constituent of the leaves of Umbellularia californica, has irritating properties, and is a reactive molecule that rapidly binds thiols.

Analytic cognitive style in cluster headache

Previous reports on cluster headache have shown a hypothalamic dysfunction and a hitherto unrecognized defect in the information processing pathways measured by event-related potentials. As of today, the causes are still unknown; likewise, studies on the psychological factors involved in CH have not yielded relevant data.

Consequences of Hyperoxia and the Toxicity of Oxygen in the Lung

Oxygen (O2) is life essential but as a drug has a maximum positive biological benefit and accompanying toxicity effects. Oxygen is therapeutic for treatment of hypoxemia and hypoxia associated with many pathological processes. Pathophysiological processes are associated with increased levels of hyperoxia-induced reactive O2 species (ROS) which may readily react with surrounding biological tissues, damaging lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Protective antioxidant defenses can become overwhelmed with ROS leading to oxidative stress.

A Cluster Headache Attack

The following is a description of what it feels like to experience a cluster headache attack. Cluster headaches range in intensity and any seasoned cluster headache patient knows well how to quickly rate the pain they are feeling on a scale of 1-10. The following is an example of a level 8 cluster headache attack.

Cluster Headache—Acute and Prophylactic Therapy

Cluster headache (CH) pain is the most severe of the primary headache syndromes. It is characterized by periodic attacks of strictly unilateral pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. The majority of patients have episodic CH, with cluster periods that typically occur in a circannual rhythm, while 10% suffer from the chronic form, with no significant remissions between cluster periods.