Repeated, periodic attacks that begin with sensory changes such as zigzag lines, blind spots, or flashing lights that block normal vision. These nervous system changes are followed by headache lasting 4-72 hours in addition to nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity or sound sensitivity.
In order to receive a diagnosis of Migraine with aura, a person must experience at least two attacks in which symptoms meet the following criteria.
One or more aura symptoms 5-60 minutes prior to the onset of headache.
- Visual – wavy lines, blind spots, or flashing lights in the visual field
- Sensory – tingling or numbness of skin
- Aphasia – inability to correctly form words or word loss
- Motor – unsteady gait, imbalance, or clumsiness
The aura meets at least two of these characteristics:
- One aura spreads over 15 minutes and/or two different auras occur in succession.
- Each aura lasts 5-60 minutes.
- At least one aura occurs on only one side of the body.
- Within 60 minutes, a headache follows the aura.
- The headache is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, increased light sensitivity, and/or sound sensitivity.
Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS) (2013). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013; 33: 9-807.